Monthly Archives: March 2013

The best aquarium water conditioner

What is a water conditioner?
An aquarium water conditioner is also known as a dechlorinator or a chlorine neutralizer. It is a mandatory aquarium supply as long as you use tap water in your fish tanks. The primary purpose of the aquarium water conditioner is to remove the chlorine and chloramines from the tap water and to make it safe for the fish.

What are Chlorine and Chloramine?
Chlorine and chloramine are used in tap water for disinfection. While they are harmless to humans, both can be lethal to fish. Traditionally, the tap water would become safe for aquarium use by just letting it sit in a bucket for a day or two. It is because chlorine is highly unstable with a half-life of approximate 4 hours. Most of it will be released into the air after just one day. Nowadays there is also chloramine in the tap water because it is said to be better at disinfection than chlorine. Chloramine is a much more stable compound and it is not going anywhere until you use a water conditioner to neutralize it.

Commercialized aquarium water conditioners

Most aquarium water conditioner comes in the form of liquid in a bottle. They are fairly cheap and easy to use. You can find them in all the pet stores as long as they sell aquarium fish.

Since there are many different brands of aquarium water conditioners out there, some new fish keepers might have a hard time to decide which one to use. Sometimes it can even be confusing which product is a water conditioner, because there are so many other aquarium supplies in the forum of liquid in a bottle. Here is a quick way to identify it. If an aquarium product does not mention the removal of chlorine and chloramines on the bottle, then it is not an aquarium water conditioner.

All of the aquarium water conditioners have the very same basic purpose – to neutralize chlorine and chloramines in the tap water. Some of them have other secondary functions. Such as the remove of heavy metal, the detoxification of ammonia and nitrite, etc. all of which can come in handy in certain situations.

The following is a list of the most popular aquarium water conditioners currently available on the market.

#1 – SeaChem Prime
Prime has a useful secondary function. It can detoxify ammonia and nitrite for up to 48 hours. During these 48 hours, the toxic ammonia is temporary turned into the harmless ammonium. It can be very useful for new aquariums where the aquarium nitrogen cycle hasn’t been established yet. Just keep doing partial water changes with Prime every day or every other day if there is ammonia and nitrite in your aquarium. By doing so, you can minimize the damage to your fish even in an uncycled aquarium. SeaChem also claims their product can provide fish with natural slim coat and detoxify heavy metal in the water.

Dosage: Use one teaspoon of Prime for every 50 gallons of water.
(1mL treats 10 gallon of tap water)

#2 – Kordon NovAqua+
NovaAqua+ can also remove heavy metal from the water. The manufacturer claims it can help condition water by buffering tap water and adding electrolytes. The product can also provide a protective coat. It is said to be able to reduce toxicity of nitrite by blocking the intake of nitrite by aquarium fish. Additional features including the ability to aid nitrifying bacteria in the filter by creating a slime coat in the filter media, and add some beneficial organic herbs and vitamins.

Dosage: Use one teaspoon of NovaAqua+ for every 10 gallons of water.
(1mL treats 2 gallons of water)

#3 – Hikari Ultimate
Ultimate is able to remove ammonia, detoxify nitrite, and replace skin slime coat for reducing fish stress. It can also add essential electrolytes and remove heavy metal to the aquarium water.

Dosage: Use One teaspoon of Ultimate for every 10 gallons of water.
(1mL treats 2 gallons of water)

#4 – API Stress Coat+
Stress Coat+ is another widely used aquarium water conditioner. It can remove heavy metal, detoxify ammonia and nitrite, creating slime coat for fish, and to add electrolytes.

Dosage: Use one teaspoon of Stress Coat for every 10 gallons of tap water.
(1mL treats 2 gallons of tap water)

#5 – Tetra Aquasafe
AquaSafe is a very basic aquarium water conditioner with the least secondary features. It has the ability to create slime coat to help wounds and the healing of fish, and it can protect the fish from abrasions. There is another enhanced version called AquaSafe+ BioExtract with the ability to removing heavy metal from the water.

Dosage: Use one teaspoon of AquaSafe for every 10 gallons of tap water.
(1mL treats 2 gallons of tap water)

The best aquarium water conditioner

All of the water conditioners can neutralize chlorine and chloramines in the tap water just fine. They are all good products. There is not much difference since more or less they all have the very similar chemical makeup. Their secondary functions are not as important. Amongst all the current water conditioners on the market, SeaChem Prime has the highest concentration, and thus making it the most cost effective.

Best Water for Aquarium Fish

To start a home aquarium, we must decide on what water to use for fish. Since fish are live animals, they are just like us requiring clean and ideal environment in order to stay healthy. Unlike us, the fish are much more fragile creatures. They can die fairly easy if we give them the wrong water.

Most people will agree on fish need clean water, but what is the definition of clean? Some people will think if the water look and smell clean it must be clean. The fact is that many of the chemical substances can’t be seen or even be detected by the smell. The number one fish killer in home aquariums is ammonia, followed by nitrite and chlorine / chloramine. They are all colorless, and you can’t smell them at low concentration.

Let’s get to the point.
What are the choices of water for the aquarium fish?

#1 – Tap water
In most cases, the water from your tap is the perfect choice for freshwater aquarium fish as long as you use an aquarium water conditioner with it.

Tap water is available at home to most of us, and it is the easiest and one of the cheapest sources of water you can use for home aquariums. If you are starting a freshwater aquarium, tap water will be perfectly fine unless you are absolutely certain the tap water in your area is of horrible quality.

One thing the beginner fish owners must pay attention to is that the tap water has chlorine and in some cases chloramine in it. These two substances can kill the fish and they must be neutralized before the tap water is safe to use in an aquarium. While chlorine can be easily removed by just letting the water sit for a day or two, chloramine is much more stable and you must use an aquarium water conditioner to get rid of it.

#2 – Well water
For some people who have access to well water, it is another choice for using in a home aquarium. However, one thing you must pay attention to is the water hardness. Due to the underground nature of well water, it has a lot of dissolved minerals in it which makes the water quite hard. Although most fish can adapt to a wide range of water perimeters if given time, water hardness is one of the things the fish has the hardest time to get used to. Research well on the fish species you plan to get. If they are from soft water environment, it is advised not to use well water for them.

#3 – Lake or river water
The water from a lake or a river is certainly a source of water. It seems natural to use it since there are fish in them. However, most aquarium hobbyists are against the use of such water. Not only you run the risk of having industrial pollution in the water, but there are also potential fish parasites and diseases from the wild. This source of water is not recommended.

#4 – Rain water
Some of the people might think rain water is clean when they live far away from the cities. The truth is that the pollution can affect a much larger area than you think. It is not a good or even safe source of water at all for aquarium fish.

#5 – Bottled water
If you are absolutely certain your tap water quality is horrible, the bottled drinking water is another choice. It will cost a lot more, and you will have to pay attention to the ingredient on what is in the bottled water. Some of them might not be just H2O and they can have additives which can be deadly to the fish.

#6– Reverse Osmosis (RO) water
The processes of creating RO water got rid of all the substances, which make it 100% pure H2O. You can obtain RO water by getting a RO unit. Some of the marine fish stores also sell RO water for fairly cheap prices.

RO water is pure, which means it has absolutely nothing else in it besides H2O. It can be potentially dangerous in an aquarium where the slightest change can cause the PH to crash due to there is no dissolved minerals acting as a buffer.

Important: If you decide to use RO water for a freshwater aquarium, you must add buffer back into the water before using it for aquarium. This can be done easily by using commercial available aquarium water buffer products such as SeaChem Replenish.

The advantage of using RO water is that it is truly clean with nothing harmful in it for the fish. More importantly, you can choose your own water hardness by adding different amount of water buffer. It enables you the option to create the most ideal environment for your specific fish species.

The best water for aquarium fish is tap water
While the best water of choice in term of quality and for fish health might be RO water if you are willing to take the extra cost and trouble, it does have its downside. Since you have to add buffer back into the water every time before using it, you have to make sure you rebuff the water with exactly the same hardness every time or your fish will be in shock or even die because of the sudden change.

Tap water is the most recommended aquarium water of choice for freshwater fish. It is also cheaper than RO water. The benefits from RO water is not really necessary unless you have a saltwater aquarium, or if your tap water is terribly low quality. There are other times when the use of RO is necessary in a freshwater aquarium. It is when the tap water in your area has extreme PH (too high or too low), or when the tap water is too hard, or when there is excessive amount of nitrate right out of the tap. Otherwise, the tap water and a bottle of aquarium water conditioner are good enough.

Where to put an aquarium

Everyone has to decide where to put an aquarium before setting it up. It might seem simple, but in reality there is more to it than just set up an aquarium at where you want to see your pet fish. The location of where to put a fish tank is very important for the overall health of the aquarium system. It is not just for the pet fish, but it is also for your own good too.

Top ten places where you should not put a fish tank

1. A fish tank should never be located where it can receive direct sunlight or excessive strong daylight.
All new aquarium hobbyists will run into algae problem one way or another. One of the leading causes for annoying algae growth in a fish tank is excessive lighting. Too long period of light or too strong lighting can both be the problem. Having a fish aquarium under direct sunlight is asking for an algae boom. You are also risking overheating and temperature fluctuations for the aquarium water and both can be lethal for the aquarium fish.

2. A fish aquarium should not be too close to an air conditioning or radiator.
The fish tank requires stable water temperature for the health of pet fish. Being too close to an air conditioning or a radiator can cool off or heat up the water temperature too quickly. It is very unhealthy for the fish and it can even kill them if the temperature change is too large too quickly.

3. A fish tank should not be located near a door.
Water transmits shock wave much stronger than air. If an aquarium is near a door where it is frequently opened and shut, the fish can be scared quite often. It is not good for their healthy if they are constantly scared.

4. Do not put a fish tank larger than 10 gallons on the top of a desk or on other furniture not designed for holding an aquarium.
Water is very heavy. A small 10 gallon fish tank can hold as much as over 70 pounds of water. Combined with the weight of the fish tank, equipments, gravels, it can be well over 100 pounds. It is good idea to use a strong aquarium stand instead of other furniture.

5. Do not to put an aquarium in the center of a large room.
It is the best to put an aquarium near a wall or in a corner where the floor is better supported. Unless you are absolutely sure the floor is strong enough, or if the fish tank is small and light, it should not be in the middle of a room where the walls are far away. Even the small to medium sized fish tank can be hundreds of pounds in total weight. Having the floor collapsing is not funny.

6. Do not set up a fish tank on the floor.
Even if you are fine with observing the fish in a top-down position, it is still not recommended to have the aquarium on the floor level. It is very easy for someone accidentally kick the fish tank or have something falls into it. It is also harder for water change with gravel vacuum.

7. Do not set up an aquarium too close to a TV or speakers.
The flashing of a TV screen and the loud sound from the speakers can be such a bother to the fish. Stressed fish won’t be healthy fish.

8. Do not set up an aquarium directly above an electrical outlet or power strip.
Better safe than sorry. Since aquariums hold so much water, you do not want water get too close to the electricity. Although you will need access to electricity for the filter, heater, and other aquarium electrical equipments, it is a good idea to have the fish tank set up at least a foot away from a wall outlet, and any power strip should not be on the floor level near the tank.

9. Do not set up a fish tank too far away from where you can access clean water.
Regular maintenance of a healthy aquarium requires weekly partial water change. To be close to a water tap can mean less stress on you to carry all the heavy water back and forth.

10. Do not set up an aquarium where nobody can see.
Despite the best care, accidents and unexpected can happen. You want to be the first one to notice if there is anything wrong with your precious aquarium fish. It is a good idea to set up the aquarium where you can frequently see without going there specifically for this purpose. So you can do something about it on the first sign of trouble.

Where to put an aquarium requires careful considerations in order to choose a perfect spot for both you and the pet fish to enjoy for long term. For large sized home aquariums, their locations can be relatively permanent since it is troublesome to move them around later on. Think carefully before you act!

Tips to speed up Aquarium Cycling

Aquarium cycling can be a slow (and painful for some :P) process, because the time required can be up to 6~8 weeks. This is especially true in the case of fishless cycling, because some people can’t wait to get their fish. There are certain things we can do to make the aquarium cycle a lot faster.

Reason for the slow cycling of aquariums
Since all the new fish tanks start with near zero beneficial bacteria of both types (nitrosomonas for converting ammonia, and nitrobacter for converting nitrite), it takes time for them to multiply to a level where you can actually see a change in the test readings. More importantly, nitrobacter will not even start to grow in number at all until the second stage when there is finally nitrite in the water. For nitrite to appear there must be enough nitrosomonas to feed on and convert ammonia first. It can take 2~3 weeks before nitrosomonas grow into sufficient number to provide nitrite for nitrobacter. The first stage is basically a bottleneck or choke point for the second stage. If we can make both stages starting simultaneously from the beginning, the whole aquarium cycling can be a lot shorter.

Three tips to speed up aquarium cycle
1. Heavy bacteria seeding
2. Higher water temperature
3. Higher oxygen level

Heavy Bacteria Seeding
To have some beneficial bacteria to start the aquarium nitrogen cycle will certainly speed up the cycling. More importantly, to have both nitrosomonas and nitrobacter to begin the cycle from the very beginning can be a huge jump start for the aquarium nitrogen cycle since it eliminates the waiting period for nitrite to appear.

Media from well established aquariums
Traditionally people seed bacteria for starting aquarium nitrogen cycle by using an object from an already established aquarium. This object can be a decoration, or some gravel. The best thing to use in this case is a piece of filter media. Since most beneficial bacteria colonize on the filter media, by putting a piece of filter media from a well established aquarium into a new filter in your new aquarium can give quite a jump start for cycling your new aquarium. Since not everyone has the access to a well established aquarium, this form of bacteria seeding is not available to everyone.

Bacteria in a bottle
Nowadays, there are commercial available bacteria seeding products for jump start aquarium nitrogen cycle in new aquariums. Yes, it is a fact there were some old bogus products with incorrect species of land based bacteria in them. When those bogus products were used in an aquarium, at first the tank might seem to be cycled quickly but it will not last because the land based bacteria will drown in the water eventually. The end result is the user must keep dosing those products in order to keep the cycle from crash. Due to wide spread of such bogus products in the past, many people believe all bacteria seeding products wouldn’t work. This is a misconception and old news.

Since Dr. Tim came up with a way to store bacteria spores in a bottle in liquid form, the first proven working product was Bio-spira. It was not long before Tetra re-branded the same product into Tetra SafeStart which was more widely available and many aquarium hobbyists have successfully used it to quick cycle their aquariums. The very same product is now in even more different bottles with different names. Dr. Tim’s One and Only is just another example. These commercially available bottled bacteria are all proven working after tried by many fish keepers. While it is true these products are meant for cycle with fish because the fact most people are not patient enough to do the fishless cycling in an empty tank, I have personally used Tetra SafeStart twice for fishless cycle with pure ammonia in two separated tanks. In both cases my fish tanks were cycled within a week, and the cycle was permanent. I have read plenty of good reviews from other fish hobbyists before I even tried Tetra SafeStart, the good results were no surprise to me.

Higher Water Temperature
Both nitrosomonas and nitrobacter love warm water. In the case of fishless cycling, you may turn the heater up and raise the water temperature to middle or high 80F, it will speed up the multiplying of these beneficial bacteria. High temperature can also increase their appetite for ammonia and nitrite. Although it will not make the day and night difference in the total time required to cycling an aquarium, it will certainly shorten it to some degree. Every little help counts when you can’t wait to get your hands on the new fish, right? 😛

Higher oxygen level
Both nitrosomonas and nitrobacter require oxygen to multiplying. A rich oxygen environment will certainly help them grow faster and therefore shorten the fish tank cycling time. You can easily achieve this by turn up the air pump and add more air stones. This is also required if you use higher temperature from the previous tip, because warmer water holds less oxygen.

There is no set time for how long it might take to cycling an aquarium before it is ready. By applying all of the tips you should be able to shorten it to less than two weeks.

Aquarium Nitrogen Cycle

Aquarium Nitrogen Cycle is perhaps the most important knowledge in fish keeping hobby. It is essential for the survival of fish in an aquarium. Without continuous nitrogen cycle in an aquarium, most fish will drop like flies within weeks.

What is an Aquarium Nitrogen Cycle?
The nitrogen cycle for an aquarium is the natural occurring process of the toxic ammonia (NH3) being converted to nitrite (NO2), then the nitrite is converted to the relatively harmless nitrate (NO3).

Ammonia (NH3) –>>> Nitrite (NO2) –>>> Nitrate (NO3)

What is ammonia?
Ammonia is a form of nitrogen compound. It is toxic. It will cause burn to the fish’s gills in even the slightest amount, and the continuous exposure to just a tiny trace of ammonia will eventually kill the fish. Moreover, ammonia poisoning is one of the leading causes for fish dying in home aquariums. This is especially true in newly set up aquariums. In a healthy aquarium, the ammonia concentration should be absolutely 0ppm (part per million).

Where is the ammonia from?
Almost all live organisms on the planet earth give off ammonia as a waste. Fish is included. Not only the fish produce ammonia directly through their gills on a constant basis, their poop also creates more ammonia when it breaks down. All the other organic matters in the aquarium such as leftover fish food, decay plants, and in some cases dead fish, will also contribute to the increasing level of ammonia in the water. While this is not a problem at all in a natural environment with nearly unlimited amount of water (ex: rivers, lakes, oceans), ammonia is not going anywhere in a closed system such as in a home aquarium.

How do I get rid of ammonia?
While certainly you can remove ammonia manually from an aquarium by doing water changes, this does not remove all of it and it is not the permanent solution since ammonia is produced on a constant basis in an aquarium as long as there is fish in it. Even if you do 100% water change every day (not recommended because it will shock the fish), ammonia will always build up between two water changes. You will never be able to keep it at 0ppm with water changes alone. This is where aquarium nitrogen cycle comes in.

In a well established home aquarium or a “cycled tank”, there will be a species of waterborne bacteria called nitrosomonas feed on ammonia as a food source. They convert ammonia to nitrite as a result. Nitrite is just as if not more toxic than ammonia. A second species of waterborne bacteria called nitrobacter will come in and feed on nitrite as food. The end result is the harmless nitrate. Both species of beneficial bacteria will continue to grow in number in an aquarium, until they reach a balanced level where their combined appetite cancels out the production of ammonia and nitrite. As a result, all the well established aquariums should always have 0ppm readings on both ammonia and nitrite.

While both species of beneficial bacteria exist naturally in the water, the number in any newly set up aquarium is always near zero, and it is nowhere near sufficient enough to keep ammonia and nitrite both at zero ppm which is required to keep your fish alive. The moment you add fish into a new fish tank, the ammonia level will start to rise and it will never be 0ppm until the tank is cycled. However, the fish will usually die to ammonia poisoning before the aquarium cycle can be completed, because it usually takes many weeks or even months before there are enough good bacteria to do the job. The solution is simple. You need to have sufficient amount of nitrosomonas and nitrobacter bacteria in a new fish tank before you can safely add fish without them dying within weeks.

The Aquarium Cycling
The process of “growing” efficient amount of nitrosomonas and nitrobacter in a newly set up fish tank is called cycling an aquarium or fish tank cycling. It is the safest way to make sure your new aquarium can handle the amount of ammonia produced by the fish before you even add the fish.

A lot of fish beginners took the wrong advice of letting the fish tank sit for a number of days, and they believe that will make the fish tank ready for fish. Having an empty tank full of water will achieve nothing even if you let it sit for many years. Since the good bacteria need a source of ammonia to begin their growth, the aquarium nitrogen cycle won’t even start until you add a source of ammonia.

The three most common methods to cycle fish tanks.
1. Fishless Cycle with pure ammonia
2. Fishless Cycling with fish food, or raw shrimp and/or raw fish
3. Cycle with fish (Fish-in Cycle)

Fishless Cycle with Fish Food

Since not everyone has the access to pure ammonia, cycling with fish food or raw fish is another way to do fishless cycle if you do not wish to cycle with fish. It is a slower and messier way to start aquarium nitrogen cycle.

To cycle a fish tank with fish food or raw shrimp or fish, you first need to set up an aquarium

Additional supplies you need for the cycling with fish food is
1. Fish food or raw fish/shrimp
2. a water test kit

Things to know before cycling aquarium with fish food (or raw fish/shrimp)
Flakes are easier to break down and to produce ammonia quicker than pellets. In the case of using raw fish or shrimp, it is faster if you chop them into smaller pieces.

Four stages of cycling with fish food (or raw fish / shrimp)

Stage I. Waiting for the organic matters to break down to produce ammonia
Stage II. Ammonia is presence in the water. Wait for nitrite to appear.
Stage III. Both ammonia and nitrite can be detected. Wait for nitrate to appear.
Stage IV. There is now a reading on nitrate. Wait for ammonia and nitrite both reach 0ppm.

Steps for cycling with fish food (or raw shrimp / fish)

Step 1. Make sure the tank is set up correctly and everything is running. The most important thing is the filter system. It must be running 24/7. The aquarium water must be treated with aquarium water conditioner to neutralize chlorine in the tap water, or it will kill the very same beneficial bacteria you try to have.

Step 2. Add the fish food or the chopped up raw shrimp/fish into the aquarium. Try to spread them out as evenly as possible. There is no need to hold back on the dosage, since there is no live fish in the tank. Just use your common sense for not overdoing it.

Step 3. Since this is still the stage one, we are waiting for ammonia to appear. Test the aquarium water for only ammonia every day after 3 days into the fish tank cycling. There is no need to test it on the first a few days since it takes time for the organic matters (fish food, raw shrimp/fish) to break down into ammonia.

Step 4. Once you start to get a reading of ammonia, it has just entered the second stage. You should add more fish food or raw fish/shrimp into the tank, but the amount should be less than the first dosage. In the case of fish food, just dose as much as the amount you would have used to feed to the fish every day. You should also start to test for both ammonia and nitrite from this point on.

Step 5. If the ammonia gets above 6ppm which is a toxic level for even the beneficial bacteria, you need to do a partial water change to lower it back to 6ppm or less. The partial water change should not include gravel vacuum because you still need the organic matters at the bottom to produce ammonia on a constant basis.

Step 6. Continue to dose fish food or raw fish/shrimp in small quantity every day, and testing the aquarium water for ammonia and nitrite.

Step 7. Once you get a reading on nitrite, the fishless cycling has entered the third stage. You must test for ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate on daily basis, and continue to add fish food or whatever you were using as a source of ammonia.

Step 8. As soon as you start to get a reading on nitrate, it has entered the final and fourth stage. You must start to test the water for PH in addition to ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate on daily basis. Nitrate production process can be acidic. It eats away the water buffer slowly and can cause a sudden crash of PH. When the aquarium water is too acidic, the cycle can be stalled because it is undesirable for the beneficial bacteria. On the first sign of PH dropping, you should do a partial water change to restore the water buffer and to remove the nitrate.

Step 9. Continue to dose the fish food on daily basis and test the aquarium water for all readings. Once you get 0ppm on ammonia and nitrite a few days in a row, the aquarium cycle is finished.

Step 10. Since you have cycled a fish tank with organic matters, there is a lot of phosphate in the water. You need to do several large partial water changes to get rid of most of the phosphate as well as nitrate before you can safely add fish. During the partial water change, you need to use the gravel vacuum to remove all the remaining organic matters at the bottom of the tank.

When you add fish, it is recommended not to add too many fish at once. Add a few fish every two to three weeks until the tank is fully stocked is the best way to do it. You need to test the water for ammonia and nitrite every day as soon as you get the fish. If there is a sign of ammonia or nitrite, large partial water change is recommended every other day with Prime as water conditioner.

Cycling with fish food can be a lot slower than cycling with pure ammonia, but it is still just as safe for your fish since you cycle the tank before you add the fish. The whole cycling process can take more than 2 months with fish food. There are some tips for tank cycling can be used to greatly reduce the time required.

Fishless Cycling with Pure Ammonia

What is fishless cycle?
In order to have sufficient amount of good bacteria in a new aquarium for the natural occurring aquarium nitrogen cycle, we must cycle aquarium or the fish will die. The methods to cycle aquariums without any fish are what we call fishless cycle. As the opposite to cycle aquarium with fish, fishless cycling is more humane because no fish will die in process. While there are more than one way to fishless cycling an aquarium, one of the fastest ways is to use pure ammonia.

There are two ways to do a fishless cycle.
A. Use pure ammonia.
B. Use fish food, or raw fish/shrimp.

In this article, we will cover the pure ammonia method. Another advantage of using pure ammonia to cycling a fish tank is to have the option of fully stock your tank with fish in one go after the cycle is done.

Whatever method you decide to use for cycling aquarium, you must set up an aquarium first. We will not get into details on how to set up an aquarium here.
Here is a quick list of the items you need.
1. A fish tank.
2. An aquarium filter.
3. An aquarium heater (if you will get tropical fish).
4. An air pump and its accessories.
5. An aquarium water conditioner.
6. A water test kit.
7. A source of pure ammonia.

Aside the necessary equipments to set up an aquarium, the only two other items here specifically for the purpose of fishless cycling are the water test kit and a source of ammonia.

The water test kit
The only way to know how much ammonia, nitrite and nitrate are there in the water is to test the water with a test kit. There are many different aquarium water test kits out there. One thing you must know is that liquid test kits are generally much more accurate than paper strip test kits. The latter is considered worthless for aquarium water testing by many people. The most commonly used water test kit with good reputation amongst aquarium hobbyists is the API Freshwater Master Kit. It is capable of testing ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and PH. There is enough supply in one package for more than 150 tests. A single kit should be sufficient enough for you to complete aquarium cycling with still plenty to spare.

A source of ammonia
Some commercially available bottled ammonia can be used for fishless cycling. Whatever the source is, you must make sure there is no additive in the bottle. Check out the ingredients is essential. The only thing you need in the bottle is a form of ammonia compound and water. Some ammonia products have soap in them, which makes them completely useless for cycling a fish tank. One of the pure ammonia products I have used successfully is Ace Ammonia Janitorial Strength Formula. It is made of 90% water and 10% ammonia hydroxide. Another type of ammonia I have used is Ammonium Chloride Solution by Dr Tim’s Aquatics, while this is a much smaller bottle it is more than enough to cycle quite a few fish tanks.

Important things to know before you start the cycle
Although the beneficial bacteria you want to grow in your new aquarium is waterborne, they can only grow in sufficient number by colonize surface areas within your fish tank. The most surface areas available in an aquarium are in the filter media. Therefore, cycling an aquarium is basically cycling the aquarium filter system, since it is where majority of your beneficial bacteria will be. You must make sure your filter system is turned on 24/7, and it must be rated high enough for your tank size or it will never have large enough surface areas in its filter media to have enough bacteria for taking care of the ammonia produced by your fish.

The Three Stages of Fishless cycle.

Stage One“Growing” nitrosomonas

Define Stage: This is the stage where you will only find a reading on ammonia, while nitrite and nitrate both remain at 0ppm all the time. It requires the most patience, because it can be the longest stage with no sign of progress.

Goal: To get a reading on nitrite is what you should be after for this stage. By the time there is nitrite in the water, it means you already have large quantity of nitrosomonas to convert ammonia.

Tasks: After the tank is set up and everything (filter, heater, air pump) is running, you need to add some ammonia into the aquarium water. While there is no need for absolute accuracy when you drop ammonia, the general rule is not to add more than 6ppm. Too much ammonia can even be toxic to the good bacteria, and it will stall the aquarium cycling.

You need to test aquarium water every a few days for ammonia and nitrite. To make sure there is always ammonia in the water, and to check sign of nitrite to get an idea on how far the fish tank cycling has gone into. It can take up to 2~3 weeks before there is even a sign of nitrite.

Stage Two“Growing” nitrobacter

Define stage: Once you get a reading of nitrite, it has entered stage two. Now the second group of beneficial bacteria nitrobacter will start to grow since there is finally food available to them. Nitrobacter would not grow during stage one because there was no nitrite available for them to feed on.

Goal: To get a reading on nitrate. You have to wait for nitrobacter to grow into sufficient number before there is a sign of nitrate, and during this stage this is exactly what you want.

Tasks: You will need to test the water daily to make sure there is always ammonia in the water, or the nitrosomonas grew during stage one will start to starve once all available ammonia is converted to nitrite. This stage is usually shorter than the second stage, but it can still take up to weeks before the next stage, where nitrate is finally showing up on test results.

Stage ThreeWait to reach a balance
Define Stage: As soon as you get a reading on nitrate, the fishless cycling has entered its final stage. Now there are a lot of both nitrosomonas and nitrobacter in the fish tank to convert both ammonia and nitrite.

Goal: To get 0ppm reading on both ammonia and nitrite. To achieve a balance between the two different species of good bacteria in order to convert all your daily dosage of ammonia into nitrate without a trace of ammonia and nitrite at the end of the day.

Tasks – You should continue to test the aquarium water on daily basis to make sure there is always ammonia to start each day with. You also must keep eyes on the nitrate concentration and PH at this point. During this stage, water buffer gets eaten away slowly and the PH might suddenly crash. When the PH is too acidic it can stall the fishless cycle. As soon as you see a drop in the PH, you should do a large water change to reduce the nitrate and to restore the water buffer as well as the PH.

You also must set your goal of how much ammonia you want your aquarium to be able to handle when it is completed. If you want 2ppm of ammonia being converted daily, you must make sure there is 2ppm ammonia in the water every day after you just gave a new dosage. Generally, 2ppm ammonia being converted daily can only ensure a light stock of fish. If you want to fully stock your tank at once, you need to aim for 5~6ppm ammonia being converted daily.

This stage should be fairly quick. It usually finishes within a week or so. Once you get a reading of 0ppm for both ammonia and nitrite a few days in a row while you still added ammonia 24 hours ago, the tank is fully cycled! You may add fish after one or more large partial water change to remove most of the nitrate.

Fishless cycling can be a slow and painful process for many people. Patience is required. The usual amount of time required to cycle a fish tank can be 6 weeks or more. Exactly time required can be vary case by case depend on many facts. There are certain useful tips to speed up fish tank cycling and cut the time required to as short as a week or less in some cases.